Dobrogea is the westernmost part of the southern Russian loess plain (for a recent map of the loess distribution in Europe and beyond, see here) and at the same time forms one of the remnant landscapes left behind by the retreat of the Paratethys Sea (current Black, Caspian, and Aral Seas). The current landscape is a loess steppe with  cliffs of Sarmatian limestone cropping out (see gallery below), as well as with several large karstic systems.

Once an independent principality in the Balkans, the northern part of which is the Romanian province of Dobrogea, the region has always had an ethnically very diverse population and culture, incorporating Romanian, Tatar, Russian (Lipovan/Old Believer), Bulgarian, Roma/Gypsy, and Turkish elements.